Best Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Filter – Outside the Safe Operating Space of a New Planetary Boundary for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
Ian T. Cousins, Jana H. Johansson, Matthew E. Salter, Bo Sha, and Martin Scheringer
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2022, 56, 16, 11172–11179
Publication Date:August 2, 2022
Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society
ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that environmental contamination by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances(PFAS) defines a separate planetary boundary and that this boundary has been exceeded. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the levels of four selected perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) (i.e.,perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)) in various global environmental media (i.e., rainwater, soils, and surface waters) with recently proposed guideline levels.
On the basis of the four PFAAs considered, it is concluded that (1) levels of PFOA and PFOS in rainwater often greatly exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Lifetime Drinking Water Health Advisory levels and the sum of the aforementioned four PFAAs (Σ4 PFAS) in rainwater is often above Danish drinking water limit values also based on Σ4 PFAS;
(2) Levels of PFOS in rainwater are often above Environmental Quality Standard for Inland European Union Surface Water.
(3) Atmospheric deposition also leads to global soils being ubiquitously contaminated and to be often above proposed Dutch guideline values. It is, therefore, concluded that the global spread of these four PFAAs in the atmosphere has led to the planetary boundary for chemical pollution being exceeded.
Levels of PFAAs in atmospheric deposition are especially poorly reversible because of the high persistence of PFAAs and their ability to continuously cycle in the hydrosphere, including on sea spray aerosols emitted from the oceans. Because of the poor reversibility of environmental exposure to PFAS and their associated effects, it is vitally important that PFAS uses and emissions are rapidly restricted.
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AMPAC USA Reverse osmosis (RO) drinking water filter systems are designed to remove contaminants from water, such as bacteria, parasites, sediment, and dissolved solids. Reverse Osmosis drinking water filter systems work by forcing water through a semi–permeable membrane, which traps contaminants on one side and allows clean water to pass through to the other side. The clean water is then collected for drinking. RO systems come in a variety of sizes and styles and can be installed in both residential and commercial settings.
KEYWORDS: PFAS, planetary boundary, chemical pollution, environmental exposure
Source: Water Feed